Q. How do I make my quotes and paraphrases "fit" more smoothly into my paper? I don't want to just insert random quotes and information, I'd like to explain why they're important and give credit.


There are many ways to integrate paraphrased and quoted material in a sentence. Paraphrases and quotes should not stand alone; they need to be “grounded” within a sentence. A “lead” refers to the words that anchor quoted or paraphrased material. Incorporating a variety of paraphrase and quote leads helps to create interesting and meaningful writing. The following examples show different ways of embedding the same quote within a sentence.

Beginning Lead:

The late scholar Leo Rosten (1986) stated, “We do not have a single letter or memoir or diary note in his hand” (p. 35).

Middle Lead:

“We do not have,” stated the late scholar Leo Rosten (1986), “a single letter or memoir or diary note in his hand” (p. 35).

End Lead:

“We do not have a single letter or memoir or diary note in his hand,” stated the late scholar Leo Rosten (1986, p. 35).

In addition to altering the placement of quoted material, a savvy writer varies the words and phrases used in quote and paraphrase leads.The following lists provide some ideas for adding variety to leads. The lists are not exhaustive; use other applicable words and phrases, perhaps with the assistance of a thesaurus.

Leads for Direct Quotations:

Rosten (1986) stated “…” (p. 35).

According to Rosten (1986), “…” (p. 35).

Rosten (1986) wrote “…” (p. 3).

Rosten (1986) argued that “…” (p. 35).

Rosten (1986) concluded that “…” (p. 3).

Leads for Summaries and Paraphrases:

According to Rosten (1986), early scholars believed ...

Rosten’s (1986) study found that …

An older study by Rosten (1986) determined that …

Rosten (1986) reported …

Rosten (1986) concluded …

Rosten (1986) emphasized …

The studies conducted by Rosten (1986) proved that …

…, according to a study by Rosten (1986).


More information on quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing

APA Guide

  • Last Updated Apr 19, 2018
  • Views 2192
  • Answered By Kate Anderson, Business Librarian

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