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Answered By: Jeneen LaSee-Willemssen
Last Updated: May 22, 2017     Views: 3469

Scroll down to the bottom for an informative video!

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

  • To back up your insights or claims with examples and outside research
  • To add credibility to your writing
  • To support or dispute your thesis
  • To highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage
  • To show you understand the original source well enough to summarize it in your own words
  • To avoid plagiarism

Definitions:

  • Quote
    • copy [of] a writer’s statements exactly as they appear in a source, word for word and punctuation mark for punctuation mark, enclosed in quotation marks” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 145).
    • Cite using the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses.
  • Summary
    • “a brief restatement, in your own words, of the main idea of a passage or an article.  It is always much shorter than the original because it omits the strategies that writers use to add emphasis and interest” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 143).
    • Cite a summary using the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses.
  • Paraphrase
    • “a detailed restatement, in your own words, of all a source’s important ideas - but not your opinions or interpretations of those ideas. You not only indicate the source’s main points but also its order, tone and emphasis” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 144).
    • Cite a paraphrase using the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses

​Tips To Remember When Using Sources:

  • When using information you gained from your sources, let your reader know where it came from.
  • It is important to cite or credit any source or individual whose ideas or work influenced your own work (American Psychological Association [APA], 2010).
  • Create a reference list first, and then write your paper. This way all the information about your sources will be available in alphabetical order.
  • Personal communications or classical works are only included in in-text citations. “Each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text” (APA, 2010, p. 174).

​Tips To Remember When Summarizing and Paraphrasing:

  • Read the whole paragraph or chapter before paraphrasing or summarizing.
  • When paraphrasing or summarizing, remember that you are not using the words of the author. Use your own words.
  • It is important to give credit to the source or individual whose ideas influenced your own work (APA, 2010).
  • Cite your sources even when you are putting the information into your own words.
  • Include citations whenever necessary to help the reader distinguish between your original thoughts and information from your sources.
  • An in-text citation contains the last name of the author or authors and then the year of publication, separated by a comma.

​Sample Paraphrase and Summarization:

  • The original passage:
    • The development and growth of universities in the nineteenth century in Europe and the USA resulted in the mass examination of student knowledge by way of essays and examinations. There was a rigorous testing of knowledge and, as part of this, students were expected to cite the origins of ideas and offer detailed analysis and interpretation of sources. Citing and analyzing the works of authors became a way for students to demonstrate their scholarly engagement with a text.

Neville, C. (2007). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill International.

  • A plagiarized version:
    • The development and growth of universities in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth century resulted in the examination of student knowledge by essays and examinations, and students were expected to cite the origins of those ideas to demonstrate engagement with a text.  
    • The “Rule of Three”: using three consecutive words that are identical to the original text is considered a quotation. This example uses direct quotes without the quotation marks (shown above in boldface) while also simply rearranging the order and slightly changing the wording (known as mosaic plagiarism).
  • A legitimate paraphrase:
    • The rise of institutions of higher learning throughout Europe and the United States led to increased testing of students’ knowledge. This was generally in the form of essays and exams in which students were expected to analyze outside sources and to cite where ideas originated (Neville, 2007).
  • An acceptable summary (shorter):
    • The requirement that students provide citations of outside sources has its roots in the history of universities and examinations (Neville, 2007).

​Tips To Remember When Making a Direct Quote:

  • Rule of thumb: generally one quote per page.
  • Make sure the quote supports the main idea.
  • Quotes call attention to a position that you agree or disagree with.
  • Quotes highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage to prove a point.
  • Prepare your reader for the quote with an introductory phrase or sentence, and always comment afterward on what you believe the quote means in terms of your thesis.
  • Elaborate on the quote, or explain its significance.
  • You do not have to quote a complete sentence. If using more than three consecutive words, use quotation marks.

Sample Quotation:

  • The original passage:
    • “I believe each of us is born with a life purpose. Identifying, acknowledging, and honoring this purpose is perhaps the most important action successful people take. They take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm.”

Canfield, J. (2005). The success principles: How to get from where you are to where you want to be. New York, NY: Harper Resource Book.

  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • People who are successful “take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (Canfield, 2005, p. 19). This enthusiasm becomes part of the successful person’s personality and being.
  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • Canfield (2005) believes that people who are successful “take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (p.19).  It is the enthusiasm that will help this person up the company ladder.
  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • A successful person is organized and enjoys what he or she does. “People take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (Canfield, 2005, p. 19).  Canfield (2005) found in his latest study that by understanding what successful people need to do…..

References

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Canfield, J. (2005). The success principles: How to get from where you are to where you want to be.

New York, NY: Harper Resource Book.

Kirszner, L., & Mandell, S. (2008). The pocket Wadsworth handbook (4th ed.). Boston, MA:

Cengage Learning.

Neville, C. (2007). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Berkshire, England:

McGraw-Hill International.

 

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Comments (1)

  1. These examples given for citing sources in text were very helpful and a delight to reread for continued clarity.
    by RFord-Harper on Sep 27, 2015.

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