Q. How do I cite something that is missing an author, date, title?


The four pieces of information needed to create an APA Reference are:

Author. (Date). Title. Access.

Some resources may be missing one or more pieces of information.  

The table below provides helpful guidance when creating a reference when information for one of the four elements (Author, Date, Title, Source) is missing.  This table is adapted from Table 9.1 How to Create a Reference When Information is Missing (APA, 2020, p. 284).

Notice that each element ends with a period EXCEPT when the source elements ends with a URL.  The inclusion of a period would interfere with the link's functionality.



  • Last Updated Jun 30, 2020
  • Views 6333
  • Answered By Suzanne Schriefer, Education & General Education Librarian

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