Q. What does the (n.d.) mean?


In an APA reference or citation, n.d. stands for "no date."

You use n.d. when you cannot find a publication date on the source you are trying to reference and cite; it stands in for the year that is normally in the date position.

Here is an example reference entry with no publication date available:

Willemssen, J. (n.d.). The joy of chicken eggs in prehistoric times. http://url


  • Last Updated Feb 14, 2020
  • Views 8138
  • Answered By Cassie Sampson, Education & General Education Librarian

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