Q. How do I create a reference and citation if there is NO AUTHOR listed?


If the source you have has no author listed, double check. For example, content on websites are often created by the owner of the website and may be considered the group author.  

  1. You will be looking first for a human being author (last name and first name).
  2. If there is no human being listed as author, look around for a "group" author. Group authors will typically be something like the name of an association, department or government agency.
    1. If you are using NoodleTools to create your references, there is a place for group author entry. You put it in the same place you would normally type the author's last name.
  3. If you still have no author, then leave the author information out of your APA reference.

When you have no author in an APA reference, the title of the source moves into the author's place.

Normally, APA references with an author will look like this:

Author. (Date). Title. Access information.

An APA reference without an author will look like this:

Title. (Date). Access information.

To see examples of references with no author visit the missing reference information page of the APA Guide.


  • Last Updated Jun 29, 2020
  • Views 6995
  • Answered By Ashley Fyvie, Nursing Librarian

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