Q. Where can I find information on how to QUOTE, PARAPHRASE and SUMMARIZE properly in APA?

I don't understand the difference between quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing.

Answer

Scroll down to the bottom for an informative video!

Why use quotations, paraphrases, and summaries?

  • To back up your insights or claims with examples and outside research
  • To add credibility to your writing
  • To support or dispute your thesis
  • To highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage
  • To show you understand the original source well enough to summarize it in your own words
  • To avoid plagiarism

Definitions:

  • Quote
    • copy [of] a writer’s statements exactly as they appear in a source, word for word and punctuation mark for punctuation mark, enclosed in quotation marks” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 145).
    • Cite using the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses.
  • Summary
    • “a brief restatement, in your own words, of the main idea of a passage or an article.  It is always much shorter than the original because it omits the strategies that writers use to add emphasis and interest” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 143).
    • Cite a summary using the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses.
  • Paraphrase
    • “a detailed restatement, in your own words, of all a source’s important ideas - but not your opinions or interpretations of those ideas. You not only indicate the source’s main points but also its order, tone and emphasis” (Kirszner & Mandell, 2008, p. 144).
    • Cite a paraphrase using the author’s last name and year of publication in parentheses

​Tips To Remember When Using Sources:

  • When using information you gained from your sources, let your reader know where it came from.
  • It is important to cite or credit any source or individual whose ideas or work influenced your own work (American Psychological Association [APA], 2020).
  • Create a reference list first, and then write your paper. This way all the information about your sources will be available in alphabetical order.
  • Personal communications or classical works are only included in in-text citations.
  • Other than personal communications, “Each reference cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and each work in the reference list must be cited in the text” (APA, 2020, p. 257).
  • Keep the following approach in mind when writing your research papers:

Integrating information from experts into your own research paper

​Tips To Remember When Summarizing and Paraphrasing:

  • Read the whole paragraph or chapter before paraphrasing or summarizing.
  • When paraphrasing or summarizing, remember that you are not using the words of the author. Use your own words.
  • It is important to give credit to the source or individual whose ideas influenced your own work (APA, 2020).
  • Cite your sources even when you are putting the information into your own words.
  • Include citations whenever necessary to help the reader distinguish between your original thoughts and information from your sources.
  • An in-text citation contains the last name of the author or authors and then the year of publication, separated by a comma.

​Sample Paraphrase and Summarization:

  • ​The original passage:
    • The development and growth of universities in the nineteenth century in Europe and the USA resulted in the mass examination of student knowledge by way of essays and examinations. There was a rigorous testing of knowledge and, as part of this, students were expected to cite the origins of ideas and offer detailed analysis and interpretation of sources. Citing and analyzing the works of authors became a way for students to demonstrate their scholarly engagement with a text.

Neville, C. (2007). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. McGraw-Hill International.

  • A plagiarized version:
    • The development and growth of universities in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth century resulted in the examination of student knowledge by essays and examinations, and students were expected to cite the origins of those ideas to demonstrate engagement with a text.  
    • The “Rule of Three”: using three consecutive words that are identical to the original text is considered a quotation. This example uses direct quotes without the quotation marks (shown above in boldface) while also simply rearranging the order and slightly changing the wording (known as mosaic plagiarism).
  • A legitimate paraphrase:
    • The rise of institutions of higher learning throughout Europe and the United States led to increased testing of students’ knowledge. This was generally in the form of essays and exams in which students were expected to analyze outside sources and to cite where ideas originated (Neville, 2007).
  • An acceptable summary (shorter):
    • The requirement that students provide citations of outside sources has its roots in the history of universities and examinations (Neville, 2007).

​Tips To Remember When Making a Direct Quote:

  • Quotes should be used sparingly, and only when absolutely necessary.
  • Make sure the quote supports the main idea.
  • Quotes call attention to a position that you agree or disagree with.
  • Quotes highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage to prove a point.
  • Prepare your reader for the quote with an introductory phrase or sentence.
  • You do not have to quote a complete sentence.
  • If using more than three consecutive words, use quotation marks.

When to use a Direct Quotation:

Although paraphrasing information is preferable, there are specific situations when a quotation can be an effective choice.  For example:

  • Famous Quotation
    • Including a famous or familiar quotation can be effective when introducing a topic or in setting the tone of a paper.
  • Words of an Expert
    • Providing the words of an expert can bolster your position or argument.
  • Couldn't Say It Better
    • In rare instances, it may be difficult to paraphrase a short passage without changing the meaning; including a precise quotation may be preferable.
  • Facts and Statistics
    • Sources of facts and statistics--including those presented in tables or charts -- must be documented in your paper using in-text citations and references.
  • Opposite Point of View
    • Including a quotation that opposes your position can be an effective method to prove why your position on the issue is preferable.

Sample Quotation:

  • The original passage:
    • “I believe each of us is born with a life purpose. Identifying, acknowledging, and honoring this purpose is perhaps the most important action successful people take. They take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm.”

Canfield, J. (2005). The success principles: How to get from where you are to where you want to be. Harper Resource Book.

  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • People who are successful “take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (Canfield, 2005, p. 19). This enthusiasm becomes part of the successful person’s personality and being.
  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • Canfield (2005) believes that people who are successful “take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (p.19).  It is the enthusiasm that will help this person up the company ladder.
  • Proper use of a direct quote:
    • A successful person is organized and enjoys what he or she does. “People take the time to understand what they’re here to do—and then they pursue that with passion and enthusiasm” (Canfield, 2005, p. 19).  Canfield (2005) found in his latest study that by understanding what successful people need to do…..

Include your student voice in your writing:

  • Be sure to include and discuss your own comments/thoughts (your “student voice”) in the paper about any source information you include in your paper.
    • Your student voice is your thoughts, views, and opinion on the topic you are paraphrasing or quoting. One way you can do this is by listing one or two sentences before or after your quote, paraphrase, or summary to expand upon your thoughts on the topic.
    • Refer to the blue diagram above:

"Your Voice" + "Your Analysis" + "Your Ideas" are all important parts of your research paper.


References

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (7th ed.). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000

Canfield, J. (2005). The success principles: How to get from where you are to where you want to be.

 Harper Resource Book.

Kirszner, L., & Mandell, S. (2008). The pocket Wadsworth handbook (4th ed.). Cengage Learning.

Neville, C. (2007). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. McGraw-Hill International.

 

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  • Last Updated Jun 25, 2020
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  • Answered By Sara Fillbrandt, Digital Services Librarian

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Comments (1)

  1. These examples given for citing sources in text were very helpful and a delight to reread for continued clarity.
    by RFord-Harper on Sep 27, 2015.