Q. Do you have an example of how to paraphrase and summarize?

Answer

Sample Paraphrase and Summarization:

  • The original passage:
    • The development and growth of universities in the nineteenth century in Europe and the USA resulted in the mass examination of student knowledge by way of essays and examinations. There was a rigorous testing of knowledge and, as part of this, students were expected to cite the origins of ideas and offer detailed analysis and interpretation of sources. Citing and analyzing the works of authors became a way for students to demonstrate their scholarly engagement with a text.

Neville, C. (2007). Complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism. Berkshire, England: McGraw-Hill International.

  • A plagiarized version:
    • The development and growth of universities in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth century resulted in the examination of student knowledge by essays and examinations, and students were expected to cite the origins of those ideas to demonstrate engagement with a text.  
    • The “Rule of Three”: using three consecutive words that are identical to the original text is considered a quotation. This example uses direct quotes without the quotation marks (shown above in boldface) while also simply rearranging the order and slightly changing the wording (known as mosaic plagiarism).
  • A legitimate paraphrase:
    • The rise of institutions of higher learning throughout Europe and the United States led to increased testing of students’ knowledge. This was generally in the form of essays and exams in which students were expected to analyze outside sources and to cite where ideas originated (Neville, 2007).
  • An acceptable summary (shorter):
    • The requirement that students provide citations of outside sources has its roots in the history of universities and examinations (Neville, 2007).
  • Last Updated Mar 18, 2019
  • Views 299
  • Answered By Ashley Fyvie, Graduate Studies Librarian

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