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Answered By: Cassie Sampson, Education & General Education Librarian
Last Updated: May 06, 2016     Views: 291

In an APA reference or citation, n.d. stands for "no date."

You use n.d. when you cannot find a publication date on the source you are trying to reference and cite; it stands in for the year that is normally in the date position.

Here is an example reference entry with no publication date available:

Willemssen, J. (n.d.). The joy of chicken eggs in prehistoric times. Retrieved from http://url

To see  more examples, click on the tab below for What if information is missing?


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