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Answered By: Jeneen LaSee-Willemssen
Last Updated: Mar 15, 2016     Views: 392

Section 6.11 (page 174-175) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association sets up the following:

When the name of the author is part of the narrative, you can, on the paragraph level, decide to remove the date after the first citation. Remember, this is at the paragraph level, not a paper-wide level, so you must begin again in following paragraphs if you use the same author/year pair in the narrative. Example:

      According to Smith (2010), trees can have roots deeper than the tree is tall. Smith notes that chestnut trees, in particular, have deep tap roots. Paragraph continues...
      Smith (2010) does not limit his information to deep-rooted trees. He also covers trees with minimal roots. In fact, Smith notes that truffala trees have no roots at all. Paragraph continues...

When the parenthetical citation appears at the end of the sentence, you must always include both author name and date. You may not leave one or the other out.

  • Yes:
  • Trees can have roots deeper than the tree is tall (Smith, 2010). The truffala tree has no roots (Smith, 2010).
  • Never:
  • Trees can have roots deeper than the tree is tall (Smith, 2010).The truffala tree has no roots (Smith). The chestnut has tremendously deep roots (Smith).
  • Never:
  • Trees can have roots deeper than the tree is tall (Smith, 2010).The truffala tree has no roots (2010). The chestnut has tremendously deep roots (2010).

Follow the rules by citation type in any given paragraph. Example:

  • According to Smith (2010), trees can have roots deeper than the tree is tall. Smith indicates that  chestnut trees, for example, have very deep roots. Finally, some trees are quite the opposite and have no roots at all, like the truffala trees (Smith, 2010).

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