Answered By: Sara Fillbrandt, Digital Services Librarian
Last Updated: Jul 30, 2016     Views: 6536

Personal interviews and other types of interpersonal communications (interviews, phone calls, emails, memos, personal letters, conversations, texts, IM chats) should not be cited in the reference page because they are not recoverable by your reader. They all need to be cited in-text, but not in the reference list. Personal communications are unique that way for APA. See section 6.20 of the Publication Manual (p. 179) for more information.


Examples of in-text citations for a personal communication follow:

According to L. Harrington (personal communication, February 22, 2011), interviews included in papers need to be relevant.

E. Grimm (personal communication, December 3, 2012), notes that seashell hunting on Sanibel Island is the best in the world.

Citing Personal Communication in NoodleTools:

Note that NoodleTools, the software Rasmussen provides for APA reference list creation, has an option for interviews. At the bottom, before you submit the information to be turned into a reference, it warns you that interviews and personal communications are RARELY INCLUDED in APA reference lists. You need to UNCHECK the box to keep your interview information out of the reference list and do APA right.


Related Topics

Chat with the Rasmussen Library

Chat Hours


12pm-8pm CT

Friday Offline
Saturday Offline
Sunday 4pm-8pm CT

Chat Expectations and Guidelines

Submit a Question

Submit Your Question
Your Info
Fields marked with * are required.