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Answered By: Cassie Sampson, Education & General Education Librarian
Last Updated: Jul 20, 2015     Views: 1318

In-text citations let your readers know that information was collected during research and is not your own. These citations are incorporated into your paper and are very short in order not to distract your readers, but to give them enough information to find the full reference citation at the end of the document. 

In-text citations use the use the author(s) last name(s), the year of publication and sometimes a page or paragraph number. If the author is missing, the title is used in place of the author. Please see our APA Citation Online Guide: In-Text Citation page for complete details.


 

Sample Reference:

Penny, H. (2011). The blue skies of the chicken coop. Wausau, WI: Willemssen Publishing.

Keywords from the above reference to use in in-text citations:

Penny, H. (2011). The blue skies of the chicken coop. Wausau, WI: Willemssen Publishing.

Example of in-text citations for a direct quote:

"The sky is falling" (Penny, 2011, p. 3).

According to Penny (2011), "the sky is falling" (p. 3).

Example of in-text citations for a information put in one's own words:

Blue skies frequently fall on chickens (Penny, 2011).

Penny (2011) indicates that the sky can fall down.


See also our answer on using in-text citations in paragraphs (versus just sentences, as seen above).